Today’s society is constantly changing, so every day is a new search for solutions that favor the planet and its citizens. And in this process, electric power is a fundamental part.
Because of these developments electric cars were created, and after years surrounded by questions and negatives, they have been established to be the center of attention. For the automotive industry, it is quite clear, the future of individual mobility will be of the electric vehicles.
Sadly, even today there are doubts about how it works and what benefits an electric vehicle can bring. If you are one of the people who want to invest in one of these, we invite you to continue reading.
What are electric vehicles?
An electric vehicle is the one that is driven by the force produced by a engine powered through electricity. In addition to being friendly with the environment, these cars have a unique and practical design.
How do electric vehicles work?
The engine receives and transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy, through electromagnetic interactions. The conductive element that they have inside makes a movement when it enters the magnetic field and it ends up receiving the electric current.
Main components of an electric vehicle
Electric cars have a charger or transformer converter, which is the element responsible for absorbing alternatively electricity directly from the network, to be transformed into direct current. Achieving to load the main battery.
Lithium-ion batteries end up storing the energy sent by the charger in the form of direct current (DC). This main battery is the mean by which the entire electric car is powered and can be connected in two ways. On cars that have a DC electric motor, this battery would be directly connected to the engine. In contrast, electric cars that have an electric engine of alternating current, the battery is connected to an inverter.
It is responsible for transforming the high voltage direct current, that is provided by the main battery. This type of current is used to power auxiliary batteries of 12 V, which at the same time are the ones that feed the electric auxiliary components of the car.
The inverters are responsible for transforming the direct current that is provided by the main battery in alternating current. In this way, you can power the electric car engine.
It can be of alternating current or direct current. The difference between these two is mainly based on their feeding way. The direct current is fed directly from the main battery, and the alternating current is fed through the energy emitted by the battery previously transformed into alternating current through the inverter.
The advantages offered by electric cars range from the economy in their maintenance to the care of the environment. Among them we have:
- They don’t produce atmospheric pollution in situ.
- They don’t produce sound pollution.
- Its use makes it possible to avoid the use of fuel and save oil, with the purpose of using it in other things.
- The maintenance and cost of the “fuel” are much less than the conventional one.
- A car gets an efficiency of 77% when the electricity comes from renewable sources.
- They can recharge their battery by regenerative braking.
- The batteries technology has improved in order to offer an almost similar autonomy to some of the small displacement of internal combustion vehicles.
- The battery has a lifetime of 10 to 12 years.
- Almost all homes have electrical outlets to recharge slowly, so recharging anywhere is not a problem, plus charging stations are on the rise.
Unfortunately, the use of electric cars is surrounded by many concerns and negativity, but the reality is that their disadvantages are less than those discussed:
- Battery charge and high price for the batteries with the longest duration.
- In certain cases, the electricity used to recharge the batteries is produced by polluting raw materials such as coal.
- Less autonomy than a conventional car, because it needs frequent recharging.
- The high cost of the initial purchase.
- The little accessibility that exists in terms of full recharges in some countries.
- Some models have a high cost.
Energy sources used
Usable energy can come from different sources, these can be renewable, fossil or atomic. These are found naturally on the planet and in the case of electric vehicles, we focus on one in particular: renewable energy.
Renewable energy sources are those that come from the environment and, after being used, can be regenerated naturally or artificially. Some of them are subject to cycles that remain more or less constant in nature. These are:
- Seawater energy.
- Hydraulic energy.
- Wind power.
- Solar energy.
- Biomass energy.